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|The EV Evolution: Trends, Applications, and Infrastructure Shaping the Future of Electric Vehicles|
Industry Insights Feature Article
By David LoCoco
Watry Design, Inc.
One barrier to increasing EV infrastructure is cost. Charging stations and electrical capacity add significantly to the cost of a project.
This can create a disincentive for owners, especially in areas where EV adoption has been slower to catch on.
Design requirements such as those found in California have been a driving force for change.
In the heart of Silicon Valley, where tech companies have proven to be willing adopters, providing EV charging for employees brings up another challenge: how to use charging stations efficiently.
When EVs are parked in the same spot for extended periods, cars that are charged but not moved result in a charger that isn’t being utilized.
One solution is to implement duel chargers, which can charge two cars at the same time. Other systems can share a charger among multiple cars by charging one and then moving the charger cable to another.
Another solution is to create greater efficiency by utilizing Level 3 charging stations, known as DC fast chargers, as opposed to the more common Level 2.
Level 2 charging stations operate on a 240V AC plug and require 4 to 6 hours to fully charge an electric battery. A DC fast charger, however, operates on a 480v direct current plug and can provide an 80 percent charge in as little as 30 minutes.
This increased charging capability combined with a valet program that moves cars to new parking spaces once they have finished charging ensures that a greater number of cars can be charged at each station throughout the day.
While the DC fast chargers incur greater upfront costs, when operated properly they can be more cost efficient than Level 2 charging.
The downside is more limited compatibility. While Level 2 chargers are compatible with all electric and plug-in hybrids, an industry standard has not yet been established for DC fast chargers.
Electrical capacity is another issue. Especially at a workplace or residential development, EV chargers experience peak loads that at certain times of days create imbalanced and inefficient electricity needs.
Emerging EV Technology Challenges Also Impact Tomorrow
How will the EV infrastructure impact the future of parking and mobility?
EV charging technology is changing rapidly, creating a challenge for parking and mobility planners tasked with building infrastructure today that will support the needs of tomorrow.
Load management options that provide more electrical power to cars with a lower charge and trickle charge those that are closer to full can use power more efficiently and thereby reduce costs.
Dense, urban city centers that are turning to mechanical and automated solutions to create efficient parking solutions are now challenged with how to make these systems compatible with EV charging.
In cases where a car is parked on a pallet or lift — and remains on the same pallet regardless of where it is stored — an EV charging station can be added to the pallet.
Fully automated garages that move cars without a pallet pose a bigger challenge, as the space is often for storage only. There is no human occupancy other than for repairs and maintenance. Therefore, a human is not present to connect a charging cable.
A lack of a universal standard both for EV charging ports and their location on a given vehicle adds another layer of complication. For EV charging to be compatible with a mechanical or automated parking system, it must be inherently flexible and adaptable.
Driverless cars will pose another charging challenge. Without human handlers, an alternative means will be needed to charge an autonomous vehicle.
Hyundai recently unveiled a charging concept that uses an automated valet parking system to charge driverless vehicles. While solutions for these challenges are in development, we still have a long way to go.
Wireless charging could open the door to a whole new method of charging EVs by eliminating the need for charging stations all together.
For example, in 2017, Qualcom demonstrated a wireless dynamic electric vehicle charging system that allows vehicles to charge while driving.
The ability to charge without stopping at a charging station would pose a tremendous advantage for autonomous ridesharing and taxi fleets. It could also potentially shift or eliminate the need to integrate EV into parking design.
As the technology itself is still a long way off from being commercially viable, such a transformation isn’t likely anytime soon.
If and when it does become available, the cost, efficiency and speed benefits of wired cables probably will not be rendered obsolete much in the same way that most cell phone users still rely on wired charging technology despite the availability of wireless.
However, it’s an important reminder that without a crystal ball, the only thing we know for sure about the future of electric vehicles is that change is coming.
As the EV industry continues to take shape, parking professionals and their companies need to be prepared to adapt to whatever that future brings.
Image: Stanford University Roble Field. PHOTO BY BERNARD ANDRE / COURTESY OF WATRY DESIGN